Olive Branch Optimism
what a wonderful world...
Saturday, April 30, 2005
Enough Said..
This from the article in previous blog- but its so gold it can have its own lil bloggy :))

well done Chomsky, couldn't have said it better myself-

Those are among the deep concerns that must, I think, be kept clearly in mind while watching events unfold in their unpredictable way as the most awesome military force in human history is unleashed against a defenseless enemy by a political leadership that has compiled a frightening record of destruction and barbarism since it took the reins of power over 20 years ago.
Just found a few interesting articles
Firstly, from one of the world most intelligent and knowledgeable men, Noam Chomsky is this article, written on March 20th, 2003 (invasion day). I can relate to this, I felt dispair. I felt raped and beaten. I felt like my right to object reasonably to those representing me was just washed away. But that didn't matter to me, because that wasn't the problem. The problem was Iraq.

Those poor people are about to be subjugated to the treatment of the American Military.
The most feared in the world [bar china?], and yet... Who wants to help? Who is offering them food while they are unable to contact their suppliers.... Where is the medical aid??? Who is going to help!?!?!?! WHY CANT I!?!?!?!

The truth is I was in tears inside all day, and outside for half of it.
Had I been blogging then, I am sure there would've been some choice' words thrown around.
-- so here it is(the article, not the list of choice words).


---------- and for those who wont go look- heres a couple of choice paragraphs for you :)

But the issues are much more fundamental, and long range. Opposition to the invasion of Iraqhas been entirely without historical precedent. That is why Bush had to meet his two cronies at a USmilitary base on an island, where they would be safely removed from any mere people. The opposition may be focused on the invasion of Iraq, but its concerns go far beyond that. There is growing fear of USpower, which is considered to be the greatest threat to peace in much of the world, probably by a large majority. And with the technology of destruction now at hand, rapidly becoming more lethal and ominous, threat to peace means threat to survival.

Fear of the USgovernment is not based solely on this invasion, but on the background from which it arises: An openly-declared determination to rule the world by force, the one dimension in which USpower is supreme, and to make sure that there will never be any challenge to that domination. Preventive wars are to be fought at will: Preventive, not Pre-emptive. Whatever the justifications for pre-emptive war might sometimes be, they do not hold for the very different category of preventive war: the use of military force to eliminate an imagined or invented threat. The openly-announced goal is to prevent any challenge to the “power, position, and prestige of the United States.” Such challenge, now or in the future, and any sign that it may emerge, will be met with overwhelming force by the rulers of the country that now apparently outspends the rest of the world combined on means of violence, and is forging new and very dangerous paths over near-unanimous world opposition: development of lethal weaponry in space, for example.

It is worth bearing in mind that the words I quoted are not those of Dick Cheney or Donald Rumsfeld or other radical statist extremists now in charge. Rather, they are the words of the respected elder statesman Dean Acheson, 40 years ago, when he was a senior advisor to the Kennedy Administration. He was justifying US actions against Cuba– knowing that the international terrorist campaign aimed at “regime change” had just brought the world close to terminal nuclear war. Nevertheless, he instructed the American Society of International Law, no “legal issue” arises in the case of a USresponse to a challenge to its “power, position, and prestige,” specifically terrorist attacks and economic warfare against Cuba.


and another great quote

--Just a few days ago, the head of the non-aligned movement, which includes the governments of most of the world’s population, described the Bush administration as more aggressive than Hitler. He happens to be very pro-American, and right in the middle of Washington’s international economic projects. And there is little doubt that he speaks for many of the traditional victims, and by now even for many of their traditional oppressors

For more on the 'non-aligned movement'
**which we should all read -including myself-[I am now]**
see this site

Over and Out.
peace be with you :)


Iraqi Hospitals - the topic of the week
I love pay day! And I love the brilliance of simplicity.

Simple ideas have inspired me, and with a decent paycheck behind me I have found a way to start fundraising for Iraq!

Tommorow, or maybe on monday I am going to go to FAL (wholesalerofeverything) and buy tons of Freddo Frogs & Caramello Koala's, for 79c ea,
then re-sell them to high-school kids at $2ea, with the proceeds going to the Jarrar Family Project

hopefully if I buy $79 worth, I will then have $200 returned by the next pay day (next friday)....
so with that $200, and some more money of my own, I should be able to buy about 350 more choccies... The cycle goes on.
After 350 choccies, I will have $700.... another $90 and i can buy 1000....

I think we will have money for you guys in Iraq soon, so hold tight and try to dodge the bullets for a bit longer :)

But life's not all good. I feel myself sinking into a depression everynow and then.
The situation in the world has been cause for discontent my whole life.

As a kid I was pissed off that Tigers were being hunted, ANGRY about animal cruelty and always the bully-buster. That is I made sure my friends weren't beaten up on by bullies, even if it meant I was(though I never got physically bashed). It pissed me off that people thought they had the right to dominate others, I mean, they weren't even adults! how dare they tell me what to do!

Now I realise that even adults can't tell me what to do, they can help or ask for help,
but never can they TELL me what to do. If we had to be told what to do all the time we would all be dead, coz I sure as hell don't tell people to breathe every few seconds.

When will Rich Men & Women[see Condoleeza Rice] learn?

anyway enough on that. Found some rather disturbing peices of news today- 'enjoy' *sarcasm*


From an article:

Doctors in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, have reported a significant increase in deformities among newborn babies.

Health officials and scientists said this could be due to radiation passed through mothers following years of conflict in the country.

The most affected regions are in the south of the country, particularly Basra and Najaf, according to experts. Weaponry used during the Gulf war in 1991 contained depleted uranium, which could be a primary source for the increase, scientists in Baghdad said.

*plenty of documentation that plenty of depleted uranium is on the ground from the current war aswell, don't forget about that* -[olivebranch]

"In my experiments we have found some cases where the mother or father were suffering from pollution from weapons used in the south and we believe that it is affecting newborn babies in the country," Dr Ibraheem al-Jabouri, a scientist at Baghdad University, told IRIN.

According to Dr Nawar Ali, at the University of Baghdad, who works in the newborn babies research department, a significant number of cases of deformed babies had been reported since 2003.

"There have been 650 cases in total since August 2003 reported in government hospitals - that is a 20 percent increase from the previous regime. Private hospitals were not included in the study, so the number could be higher," Ali warned.

Is this the better Iraq that we promised to create?

here's the full article courtesy of Alternet Alternative News :)


here's some of my fav quotes from the article for those lazy buggers who wont read it.

The type of deformities found in newborn babies are characterised by multiple fingers, unusually large heads, unilateral lips or no arms or legs.

The IRCS hospital registers at least four cases of deformities every week. During April this year, 15 cases were reported, according to the hospital spokesman, a number considered high for a short period of time.

Amran added that 60 percent of the cases were not related to blood factors, but due to other causes. She explained that after studying family history of couples with deformed babies, they concluded that radiation and pollution were the main causes of the deformity.

"My two children were born with deformities and today I had my third one with the same problem. The doctors say pollution is the cause and now my husband wants to divorce me claiming that I am not capable of bringing healthy children into the world," Fatima Hussein, a 34-year-old patient at the hospital, told IRIN


There's other stuff on the agenda today too though- this from another bloggers site -

The Draft: Between Iraq and a Hard Place

Date: April 27, 2005 | 18 Rabi al-Awwal 1426 Hijriah

From an article:

After two years of intensive fighting in Iraq, the Pentagon is feeling the strain in every military muscle and has been looking for relief in just about every direction but one -- the draft. All across the United States today, young people are wondering whether, sooner or later, in its increasingly airless military universe, the Bush administration will open the window a crack and let the draft in.

A key reason for the ever-more-evident strain on military resources is that more than 40% of the 150,000 soldiers in Iraq are Army Reserves and National Guards. As Army Historian Renee Hylton told Salon reporter Jeff Horowitz, use of these forces creates pressure to "win and get out...there's a definite limit to people's service." When they are called to active duty, these troops risk their jobs as well as their lives; so, when their mandatory two-year terms expire, a significant proportion of them, under the best of circumstances, are likely to refuse further service. And service in Iraq has already proved something less than the best of circumstances. Little wonder then that, just past the two year anniversary of our invasion, the military is under increasing pressure to replenish this crucial element in the recruitment mix -- without much of an idea of how to do so.

In addition, in order to maintain troop strength in Iraq at anything like present levels, large numbers of active-duty soldiers must return there for more than one nine-month tour of duty, and this redeployment too generates distrust and distaste. Sooner or later, sizeable numbers of these angry soldiers must nevertheless be convinced to re-enlist, or else the pressure for new enlistees will escalate out of control and beyond the bounds of the present system to satisfy.

Add to this a constantly increasing casualty toll, now well beyond 30,000, which, in a variety of ways, places yet more pressure on recruitment. Finally, as embittered double-deployment veterans and angry Reserves, along with wounded and mentally stressed dischargees, return home, they only stiffen the resistance to enlistment among the young in their neighborhoods

This is a good article, with lots of links in the original, setting out the state of things. Will there be a draft soon? At some point, the choice will be that or withdrawal from Iraq.

I agree, the site is excellent - heres a working link for you all [olivebranch]

Friday, April 29, 2005
Email me!
Finally realised I didn't have my email on front page-

those who wish to can email from the link on the right !!
or copy n paste this


P.S, anyone heard from Riverbend?? she's been inactive for 11days, that a fair amount of time between blogs!


probably the best reading you will ever do!
Wednesday, April 27, 2005
Work to do...
My journey to the Uni yesterday was as succesfull as it could be,
in a few weeks I will get a phone call, then a confirmation a few weeks later
and its off to uni I go!

Anyways, I got work soon, but for any of the Iraqi bloggers out there, if you read this I need help.
I'm going to use this site to show my friends who are less politically educated/motivated than me,
too make it easier for them to get sum-up's of situations (with links to more info etc, from your' blogs and the dreaded media....)

So could you email me any information you can give me regarding Falloojeh ? some of its prewar interesting past would be nice to, I don't just want to tell people how screwed it is, but how lovely it could be... Works better that way.

Anyway I have to run, got work at 6AM; will post again soon!

An Olivebranch University Adventure
Well, I woke this morning to the sound of my lovely girlfriends phone alarm at 5am. She started work at 6am, about 25km away from where I am now (just drove home and watched the sun rise).

In a few hours I am about to make one of the largest steps in my life, overcome a goal I've had for years. I AM GOING TO APPLY FOR UNIVERSITY.

now here's the answers before you ask:

with a minor in creative writing and photography :)

I want to be a photo journalist, or atleast take photos of/write about the truth, even if I cant report them independantly of this blog. (Bloggggggggggggggggggggging rocks!)

Anyways, my plan is, when I go down to the uni, I'm going to meet up with some of my old Youth and Students Against War buddies, and organise/collect some donations to send to raed' (see link to raidinthemiddle on right hand side).

I feel lucky, and I feel inspired by the fact that I have now found a way to actually directly help, and try to make-up-for the fact that our troops are over in Iraq. I know I alone can't do that, because I can't remove them, or reimburse a country of its pride and sovereignty.

Hopefully the medicines can save some lives, remove some pain and bring some hope to people who would otherwise feel despair. And even a faint glimmer of hope at this point after 2 years of crushing, demoralizing oppression, could be enough to make someone fight through their pain (or atleast maybe the steralizers could stop infections from killing them, whichever way you look at it).........

On a more light note, It's the beggining of a new season, and you know what that means???

CHEAP FRUIT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! and LOTS OF IT!!! (atleast for us lucky people in Perth).
The best food-investment I ever made was a $8 box of fruit. For 80c a kilogram, I got fresh and tasty banana's, plums, pears, apples (red,green and golden delicous), and those little weird pears that arent like normal ones + a few mandarines thrown in!!!!

$8 for 10 kg of fresh fruit! $8!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The fruits on me!! I've been giving it away and eating it. I've been thinking about posting the way our society is here in Perth, and changing my life a bit, to try and make it more congruent with how I believe a community should be.

After reading riverbends' blog, (riverbendblog.blogspot.com), From finish to beggining (don't ask why I read backwards, it' just makes more sense that way!) I learn't alot about Iraqi' society, and was particularly impressed by the closeness, and by the generosity or alteast by the sharing (incase some may do it just out of custom, and actually resent doing it?), particularly of food.

And it made me think. WHY DON'T WE DO THAT?

So I've decided, that from now on when I cook, I'm going to make enough to give a free plate of food to one of my neighbours, and when I buy my next 10kg of fruit, I'm going to give away bags of it like I did to a friend yesterday. What could be better than spreading goodwill and goodhealth to good people that live nearby?

well, I guess the answer to that is giving it to good people living far away, who need it more.....
Now I feel like and idiot :P

Oro!!!!!!! (saying that Japanese manga characters use when they are confused or do something stupid?)

I guess giving it away and spreading the wealth/health/goodwill is better than not doing it at all though. Ahhh shit, who am I trying to justify it to?

The thing is that here in Perth, you'd be lucky to get a wave from the next door neighbour, or a nod of the head, or eyecontact, unless you knew them or your kid goes to school with theirs, or you are accidentally forced to... Like when you both put your bins out at the same day on bin day.

I want this to change. I envy community in Baghdad, but not the bombs. I think maybe if we were closer with our own communities, we might build more appreciation for the lives of other humans, and be much easier able to relate to other communities, eventuating in a global utopia where we can all live happily ever after with our own palace and unlimited xbox games.

Enough of my rambling and time for some real news to 'brighten your day'. This exerpt directly from "Healing Iraq" [healingiraq.blogspot.com]


Monday, March 21, 2005

Mahdi Army Beats 2 Students to Death in Basrah

No one seems to have reported the latest events in Basrah. Not any of the news services or the blogs.

Students of the Basrah and Shatt Al-Arab universities in Basrah city have been on strike for the last three days as a reaction to the attack last week by Sadrists and Mahdi Army militiamen on tens of students organising a field trip or a picnic at Al-Andalus park, downtown Basrah.

Hooded men assaulted the students with rubber cables and truncheons which resulted in the death of a Christian girl, Zahra Ashour, and another student who came to her rescue after militiamen had tore off her clothes and were beating her to death. He was shot in the head.

Students say that their belongings, such as mobile phones, cameras, stereo players and loudspeakers, were stolen or smashed to pieces by the militiamen. Girl students not wearing headscarves, most of them Christian, were severely beaten and at least 20 students were kidnapped and taken to Sadr's office in Al-Tuwaisa for 'interrogation' and were only released late at night.

Students also say the police and British soldiers were nearby but did not intervene.

A Sheikh As'ad Al-Basri, one of Sadr's aides in Basrah, stated that the 'believers' of the Mahdi Army did what they did in an act of 'divine intervention' in order to punish the students for their 'immoral and outrageous behaviour' during the 'holy month of Muharram, while the blood of Imam Hussein is yet to dry.' He added that he had sent the 'group of believers' to observe and photograph the students, and on witnessing them playing loud music, 'the kind they play in bars and discos', and openly talking to female students, the 'believers had to straighten things out'.

No reaction yet from the Governorate council, the police, or the British forces in Basrah. Thousands of students have been demonstrating in front of the Basrah Governorate building in Asharr for the last three days, shouting 'No to political Islam', 'No to the new tyranny' and 'No to Sadr'. The police (which is loyal to Da'wa in Basrah) reportedly attacked the students in order to disperse the demonstrations.

All this while some people are campaigning for Sistani to receive the Nobel peace prize. One can't help but wonder if these kinds of events are what the Islamists have in store for us when they insist on 'respecting the Islamic identity of Iraq'.

They can blame Jordan, Syria, the Ba'ath, Salifis, Wahhabis as much as they want, but they cannot utter a single word about the old new medieval Inquisition we have to deal with every day, under the sanctity of Sistani and his ilk. The new Taliban.

It's sad isn't it. People in Perth won't hear about this unless someone like me pushes it into the media's face. People won't relate and don't understand the inherent connection between the beliefs of Sistani and Al-Sadr, even if they are do not support the same 'faction/s' of Islam, they both represent the spiritual leading role of two so called armies - Badr's Brigade - and the Mehdi Army.

Which is worse? I couldn't tell you. I'm just an Auzzie who never leaves home (well, I went to Bali, if that helps)

Find out more about these evils on these Iraqi blogs


for more Iraq news, follow the links leading off the above pages,
since I'm not an Iraqi, it's best to let them decide what is right and wrong,
who is reporting the most truth and what the truth is.

So they will be your' better guide on this one.

Right now I'm trying to focus globally, while working on re-developing the local peace movement into it's once-strong self, this means I haven't time to repeat all the news and give all my views on Iraq. But I will try my hardest.

Thats the end of my morning blog, may update again today
depends what goes down in town :)

- Olivebranch
Sunday, April 24, 2005
Finishing a night of blogfilled fun
I spent most of tonight trying to organise myself, this blog and send emails to other bloggers, particularly the Jarrar family, with their Emergency Aid Distribution setup in Baghdad, sending much needed medical supplies to victims of the siege on falloojeh and other victims of the War.

Information on sending donations to this reliable, well documented cause can be seen at the below site.

To make a Paypal donation to this once in an occupation aid distribution
center run by the Jarrar Family,
click on the link on the right hand side of the below page that says
"make donations"


Money can be sent via mail as a postal order or cash(if u trust it) to ---->

/Attn. Majid Jarrar/
/650 Pearson College Drive/
/Victoria, V9C 4H7/
/BC, Canada

or via Paypal to ->

/Pay To : jarrar_raed@hotmail.com
Payment For: Emergency Aid To Civilian Victims/


I am one of the founding members of Youth and Students Against War here in Perth,
and as such I feel it my duty to get this group back into action, so that when it comes time for some critical punches, we will be ready, not tooo late like we were with Iraq. Here's a copy of the e-mail I sent out to them today!
(without the bit about donating, coz it's already above)

Below I am pasting a list of my bookmarked blogs, each of them you will
find useful in studying the Middle Eastern situation at the moment,
The danger is only just beginning, Iraq is getting worse, Israel is
getting anxious, Syria is having international problems and Lebanon is a
Political mess, though rich in activism.

If we don't intervene somehow, or come together and help, then this
groups existance is pointless.

Here are the blogs

Me Vs Myself - http://me-vs-myself.blogspot.com/
Another Irani Online - http://benevis-dige.blogspot.com/
Turning The Tides - http://blogs.zmag.org/ttt/ (Noam Chomsky's very own
Olive Branch Optimisim..[In my eyes] -
http://olivebranchoptimism.blogspot.com/ (My very own blog)
Raed in the Middle - http://raedinthemiddle.blogspot.com/
Healing Iraq - http://healingiraq.blogspot.com/
Baghdad Burning - http://riverbendblog.blogspot.com/ (the best reading
I've had in my life so far)
Over our dead bodies! - http://rezansr.blogspot.com/

Here is some Alternative Media

Lost in Distortion - http://www.lostindistortion.com/base.html
Guerrilla News Network - http://www.guerrillanews.com/
AlterNet: Home - http://www.alternet.org/
Independent Media TV - http://www.independent-media.tv/ (News Ignored
and Under Reported by the Corporate Media)
Democracy Now!: radio and TV news - http://www.democracynow.org/
Hetq Online - http://www.hetq.am/eng/ (Armenian Independant Journalists)
Bloody Americans

Below is a quote i ripped directly from Al-Jazeera online, its golden!

UN Security Council Resolution 1559 calls for an end to foreign military presence in Lebanon and the disarming of all militias.

The US wants Syria out of Lebanon before Lebanese elections, and stresses that there is no point in holding national elections with foreign troops still in the country.

Mustafa Bakri, editor of Al-Osbou weekly magazine, says he wants to know why the same did not apply for Iraq.

"Why were there 140,000 US soldiers in addition to thousands of other foreign troops in Iraq when the elections were held?" he asked in an interview with Aljazeera.net.


Well, I guess, the difference is that America has free and open elections, where any one can vote! (unless they are hispanic, black, have a similar name to a black man, aren't republican, live in ohio or florida or might be out of the country). Where as Syria, well we all know they are a bunch of 'towelhead muzzies' with no education and only guns to support their party, not hard-hitting ultra-intelligent people like Bush and Cheney!

and before you say it in an email - NO IM NOT A RACIST - you just have yet to notice the sarcasm :)

What else is different between Syria and America?
(now im no Syrian, infact I've only left Western Australia once, to go to Indonesia, so I'm not really that travelled at all)

BUT, I have got the internet, and I have learnt a few things lately.

1) Protestors, in Lebanon compared to Iraq.

Lebanon -> hundreds of thousands of people, signs, boards and emotions pouring through the streets safe in their natural surroundings.

Iraq -> Hundreds of thousands of tiny electronical sensors remotely searching each individual protestor for signs of bombs, guns (incase they want to protect themselves from carjackers), and not to mention the tanks and helicopters hovering around to keep things 'safe' for the protestors.

Sounds nice a safe to me! Who could be scared when the Americans are watching? The British?

Who WOULDN'T tell the American exactly what they think??? I mean, with such open a trustworthy soldiers bringing lollies and peices of saddams broken statue to the iraqi children, You'd think the soldiers would be down their with their guns on the floor hugging the protestors as they scream US OUT, IRAQ FOR IRAQI's, FUCK SCIRI, NO TO ISLAMIC REVOLUTION!

or maybe they are there to 'protect' the protestors from evil like al-Zarqawi and Bush-Laden - err. Bin-Laden.

etc etc etc.

enough rambling for now,


First Blog
Well here it begins,
my first attempt at blogging, and hopefully an ongoing-never-ending first time it will be!

Iraq,Politics,Emotions,People,Politics,Beliefs and beyond are what you'll see here.
I'm a writer, I write poetry, I write opinions and I love doing it,
im 18, live in Perth, Western Australia and live a very privelaged life style.

Here there are no bombs, no army patrols, plenty of hot water for the shower, and fresh oranges all year round. We have new cars, (which im buying another of soon) and petrol costs $1.05 a litre today.

Geeze' I can't believe the people in my country,
whingers the majority of them.

No consideration for the people who have no effect on their own little circles, and only little consideration for most of their own circles. The youth and my friends alike are changing this though, be assured that we care and we are doing what we can to change the world, to take some of what we have, away from ourselves and to the people who actually appreciate it.

I don't know where this blog will lead, and I hope for nothing more than to actually post to it weekly, because I'm the lazy kind who forgets to do these things, and then eventually just gives up! PLEASE DON't let me!

Friday, April 01, 2005
Aug 22 Draft Iraqi Constitution
--- Actually posted on 27/9/05, but put here for future reference --

The complete text of the draft Iraqi Constitution, as translated from the Arabic by The Associated Press (final version is here).


We the sons of Mesopotamia, land of the prophets, resting place of the holy imams, the leaders of civilization and the creators of the alphabet, the cradle of arithmetic: on our land, the first law put in place by mankind was written; in our nation, the most noble era of justice in the politics of nations was laid down; on our soil, the followers of the prophet and the saints prayed, the philosophers and the scientists theorized and the writers and poets created.

Recognizing God's right upon us; obeying the call of our nation and our citizens; responding to the call of our religious and national leaders and the insistence of our great religious authorities and our leaders and our reformers, we went by the millions for the first time in our history to the ballot box, men and women, young and old, on Jan. 30, 2005, remembering the pains of the despotic band's sectarian oppression of the majority; inspired by the suffering of Iraq's martyrs - Sunni and Shiite, Arab, Kurd and Turkomen, and the remaining brethren in all communities - inspired by the injustice against the holy cities in the popular uprising and against the marshes and other places; recalling the agonies of the national oppression in the massacres of Halabja, Barzan, Anfal and against the Faili Kurds; inspired by the tragedies of the Turkomen in Bashir and the suffering of the people of the western region, whom the terrorists and their allies sought to take hostage and prevent from participating in the elections and the establishment of a society of peace and brotherhood and cooperation so we can create a new Iraq, Iraq of the future, without sectarianism, racial strife, regionalism, discrimination or isolation.

Terrorism and "takfir" (declaring someone an infidel) did not divert us from moving forward to build a nation of law. Sectarianism and racism did not stop us from marching together to strengthen our national unity, set ways to peacefully transfer power, adopt a manner to fairly distribute wealth and give equal opportunity to all.

We the people of Iraq, newly arisen from our disasters and looking with confidence to the future through a democratic, federal, republican system, are determined - men and women, old and young - to respect the rule of law, reject the policy of aggression, pay attention to women and their rights, the elderly and their cares, the children and their affairs, spread the culture of diversity and defuse terrorism.

We are the people of Iraq, who in all our forms and groupings undertake to establish our union freely and by choice, to learn yesterday's lessons for tomorrow, and to write down this permanent constitution from the high values and ideals of the heavenly messages and the developments of science and human civilization, and to adhere to this constitution, which shall preserve for Iraq its free union of people, land and sovereignty.


Article (1): The Republic of Iraq is an independent, sovereign nation, and the system of rule in it is a democratic, federal, representative (parliamentary) republic.

Article (2):

1st - Islam is the official religion of the state and is a basic source of legislation:

(a) No law can be passed that contradicts the undisputed rules of Islam.

(b) No law can be passed that contradicts the principles of democracy.

(c) No law can be passed that contradicts the rights and basic freedoms outlined in this constitution.

2nd - This constitution guarantees the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and the full religious rights for all individuals and the freedom of creed and religious practices.

Article (3): Iraq is a multiethnic, multi-religious and multi-sect country. It is part of the Islamic world and its Arab people are part of the Arab nation.

Article (4):

1st - Arabic and Kurdish are the two official languages for Iraq. Iraqis are guaranteed the right to educate their children in their mother tongues, such as Turkomen or Assyrian, in government educational institutions, or any other language in private educational institutions, according to educational regulations.

2nd - the scope of the phrase "official language" and the manner of implementing the rules of this article will be defined by a law that includes:

(a) issuing the official gazette in both languages.

(b) speaking, addressing and expressing in official domains, like the parliament, Cabinet, courts and official conferences, in either of the two languages.

(c) recognition of official documents and correspondences in the two languages and the issuing of official documents in them both.

(d) the opening of schools in the two languages in accordance with educational rules.

(e) any other realms that require the principle of equality, such as currency bills, passports, stamps.

3rd - Federal agencies and institutions in the region of Kurdistan use both languages.

4th - The Turkomen and Assyrian languages will be official in the areas where they are located.

5th - Any region or province can take a local language as an additional official language if a majority of the population approves in a universal referendum.

Article (5): The law is sovereign, the people are the source of authority and its legitimacy, which they exercise through direct, secret ballot and its constitutional institutions.

Article (6): Government should be rotated peacefully through democratic means stipulated in this constitution.

Article (7):

1st - Entities or trends that advocate, instigate, justify or propagate racism, terrorism, "takfir" (declaring someone an infidel), sectarian cleansing, are banned, especially the Saddamist Baath Party in Iraq and its symbols, under any name. It will be not be allowed to be part of the multilateral political system in Iraq, which should be defined according to the law.

2nd - The state will be committing to fighting terrorism in all its forms and will work to prevent its territory from being a base or corridor or an arena for its (terrorism's) activities.

Article (8): Iraq shall abide by the principles of good neighborliness and by not intervening in the internal affairs of the other countries, and it shall seek to peacefully resolve conflicts and shall establish its relations on the basis of shared interests and similar treatment and shall respect its international obligations.

Article (9):

1st -

(a) The Iraqi armed forces and security apparatuses consist of the components of the Iraqi people, keeping in consideration their balance and representation without discrimination or exclusion. They fall under the command of the civil authority, defend Iraq, don't act as a tool of oppression of the Iraqi people, don't intervene in political affairs and they play no role in the rotation of power.

(b) Forming military militias outside the framework of the armed forces is banned.

(c) The Iraqi armed forces and its personnel - including military personnel working in the Defense Ministry and in any offices or organizations subordinate to it - are not allowed to run as candidates in elections for political office. They should not engage in election campaigning for candidates and should not take part in activities forbidden by the regulations of the Defense Ministry. This ban includes the activities of the previously mentioned individuals acting in their personal or professional capacities, but does not include their right to vote in the elections.

d) The Iraqi national intelligence service shall gather information and assess threats to national security and offers advice to the Iraqi government. It is under civilian control; it is subjected to the supervision of the executive authority; it operates according to the law and to recognized human rights principles.

e) The Iraqi government shall respect and implement Iraq's international commitments regarding the nonproliferation, non-development, non-production, and non-use of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Associated equipment, material, technologies, and communications systems for use in the development, manufacture, production, and use of such weapons shall be banned.

2nd - Military service shall be regulated by a law.

Article (10): The holy shrines and religious sites in Iraq are religious and cultural entities. The state is committed to maintain and protect their sanctity and ensure the exercising of (religious) rites freely in them.

Article (11): Baghdad is the capital of the republic of Iraq.

Article (12):

1st - The flag, emblem and national anthem of Iraq shall be fixed by law in a way that symbolizes the components of the Iraqi people.

2nd - Medals, official holidays, religious and national occasions and the official calendar shall be fixed by law.

Article (13):

1st - This constitution shall be considered as the supreme and highest law in Iraq. It shall be binding throughout the whole country without exceptions.

2nd - No law that contradicts this constitution shall be passed; any passage in the regional constitutions and any other legal passages that contradict this constitution shall be considered null.



FIRST: Civil and political rights.

Article (14): Iraqis are equal before the law without discrimination because of sex, ethnicity, nationality, origin, color, religion, sect, belief, opinion or social or economic status.

Article (15): Every individual has the right to life and security and freedom and cannot be deprived of these rights or have them restricted except in accordance to the law and based on a ruling by the appropriate judicial body.

Article (16): Equal opportunity is a right guaranteed to all Iraqis, and the state shall take the necessary steps to achieve this.

Article (17):

1st -- Each person has the right to personal privacy as long as it does not violate the rights of others or general morality.

2nd -- The sanctity of the home is protected. They cannot be entered or searched or violated except by judicial decision and in accordance with the law.

Article (18):

1st -- An Iraqi is anyone who has been born to an Iraqi father or an Iraqi mother.

2nd -- Iraqi nationality is a right to all Iraqis and it is the basis of their citizenship.

3rd _

(a) It shall be forbidden to withdraw the Iraqi citizenship from an Iraqi by birth for any reason. Those who have had their citizenship withdrawn have the right to reclaim it and this should be regulated by law.

(b) Iraqi citizenship shall be withdrawn from naturalized citizens in cases stated by law.

4th -- Every Iraqi has the right to carry more than one citizenship. Those who take a leading or high-level security position must give up any other citizenship. This shall be regulated by law.

5th -- Iraqi citizenship may not be granted for the purposes of a policy of population settlement disrupting the demographic makeup in Iraq.

6th -- Citizenship regulations shall be determined by law, and the proper courts should hear suits arising from the regulations.

Article (19):

1st -- The judiciary is independent, with no power above it other than the law.

2nd -- There is no crime and no punishment except by the text (of law). And there is no punishment except for an act that the law considers a crime at the time of its commission. No punishment can be enacted that is heavier than the punishment allowed at the time of the crime's commission.

3rd -- Trial by judiciary is a right protected and guaranteed to all.

4th -- The right to defense is holy and guaranteed in all stages of investigation and trial.

5th -- The accused is innocent until his guilt is proven in a just, legal court. The accused cannot be tried for the same accusation again after he has been freed unless new evidence appears.

6th -- Every individual has the right to be treated in a just manner in all judicial and administrative procedures.

7th -- Court sessions will be open unless the court decides to make them secret.

8th -- Punishment is for individuals.

9th -- Laws do not apply retroactively unless otherwise has been legislated, and this exception does not include laws of taxes and duties.

10th -- Punitive law shall not be applied retroactively unless it is best for the defendant.

11th -- The court shall appoint an attorney to defend defendants charged with a felony or a misdemeanor who don't have an attorney and it shall be at the state's expense.

12th _

(a) (Arbitrary) detention shall not be allowed.

(b) Arrest or imprisonment is not allowed in places other than those designated for that according to prison laws that are covered by health and social services and are under the control of the state.

13th -- Preliminary investigation papers shall be shown to the concerned judge no later than 24 hours from the time of the detention of the accused and cannot be extended except once and for same duration.

Article (20): Citizens, male and female, have the right to participate in public matters and enjoy political rights, including the right to vote and run as candidates.

Article (21):

1st -- An Iraqi shall not be handed over to foreign bodies and authorities.

2nd -- Political asylum to Iraq shall be regulated by law and the political refugee shall not be turned over to a foreign body or forcefully returned to the country from which he has fled.

3rd -- Political asylum shall not be granted to those accused of committing international or terror crimes or to anyone who has caused Iraq harm.

SECOND: Economic, social and cultural rights

Article (22):

1st -- Work is a right for all Iraqis in a way that guarantees them a good life.

2nd -- The law regulates the relation between employees and employers on an economic basis, while keeping in consideration rules of social justice.

3rd -- The state guarantees the right to form or join syndicates or professional unions. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (23):

1st -- Private property is protected and the owner has the right to use it, exploit it and benefit from it within the boundaries of the law.

2nd -- Property may not be taken away except for the public interest in exchange for fair compensation. This shall be regulated by law.


(a) An Iraqi has the right to ownership anywhere in Iraq and no one else has the right to own real estate except what is exempted by law.

(b) Ownership with the purpose of demographic changes is forbidden.

Article (24): The state shall guarantee the freedom of movement for workers, goods and Iraqi capital between the regions and the provinces. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (25): The state shall guarantee the reforming of the Iraqi economy according to modern economic bases, in a way that ensures complete investment of its resources, diversifying its sources and encouraging and developing the private sector.

Article (26): The country shall guarantee the encouragement of investments in the different sectors. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (27):

1st -- Public property is sacrosanct, and its protection is the duty of every citizen.

2nd -- Regulations pertaining to preserving and administrating state property, the conditions set for using it and the cases when giving up any of the property may be allowed shall be regulated by law.

Article (28):

1st -- Taxes and fees shall not be imposed, amended, collected or eliminated except by law.

2nd -- Low-income people should be exempted from taxes in a way that guarantees maintaining the minimum level necessary for a living. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (29):


(a) The family is the foundation of society and the state should preserve its (the family's) existence and ethical and religious value.

(b) The state shall guarantee the protection of motherhood, childhood and old age and shall take care of juveniles and youths and provide them with agreeable conditions to develop their capabilities.

2nd -- Children have the right to upbringing, education and care from their parents; parents have the right to respect and care from their children, especially in times of want, disability or old age.

3rd -- Economic exploitation of children in any form is banned and the state shall take measures to guarantee their protection.

4th -- Violence and abuse in the family, school and society shall be forbidden.

Article (30):

1st -- The state guarantees social and health insurance, the basics for a free and honorable life for the individual and the family -- especially children and women -- and works to protect them from illiteracy, fear and poverty and provides them with housing and the means to rehabilitate and take care of them. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (31):

1st -- Every Iraqi has the right to health service, and the state is in charge of public health and guarantees the means of protection and treatment by building different kinds of hospitals and health institutions.

2nd -- Individuals and associations have the right to build hospitals, dispensaries or private clinics under the supervision of the state. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (32): The state cares for the disabled and those with special needs and guarantees their rehabilitation to integrate them in society. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (33):

1st -- Every individual has the right to live in a correct environmental atmosphere.

2nd -- The state guarantees protection and preservation of the environment and biological diversity.

Article (34):

1st -- Education is a main factor for the progress of society and it is a right guaranteed by the state. It is mandatory in the primary school and the state guarantees fighting illiteracy.

2nd -- Free education is a right for Iraqis in all its stages.

3rd -- The state encourages scientific research for peaceful purposes in a way that benefits humanity and it promotes excelling, creativity and the different manifestations of excellence.

4th -- Private and national education is guaranteed and regulated by law.

PART TWO:Freedoms

Article (35):

1st _

(a) The freedom and dignity of a person are protected.

(b) No one may be detained or investigated unless by judicial decision.

(c) All forms of torture, mental or physical, and inhuman treatment are forbidden. There is no recognition of any confession extracted by force or threats or torture, and the injured party may seek compensation for any physical or mental injury that is inflicted.

2nd - The state is committed to protecting the individual from coercion in thought, religion or politics, and no one may be imprisoned on these bases.

3rd - Forced labor, slavery and the commerce in slaves is forbidden, as is the trading in women or children or the sex trade.

Article (36): The state guarantees, as long as it does not violate public order and morality:

1st - the freedom of expressing opinion by all means.

2nd - the freedom of press, publishing, media and distribution.

3rd - freedom of assembly and peaceful protest will be organized by law.

Article (37):

1st - Freedom to establish and belong to political organizations and parties is guaranteed, and it will be organized by law.

2nd - No person can be forced to join or remain a member of a political party or organization.

Article (38): The freedom of communications and exchanges by post, telegraph, telephone and by electronic and other means is guaranteed. They will not be monitored or spied upon or revealed except for legal and security necessity in accordance with the law.

Article (39): Iraqis are free in their adherence to their personal status according to their own religion, sect, belief and choice, and that will be organized by law.

Article (40):

1st - The followers of every religion and sect are free in:

(a) the practice of their religious rites, including the (Shiite) Husseiniya Rites.

(b) the administration of religious endowments and their affairs and their religious institutions, and this will be organized by law.

2nd - The state guarantees freedom of worship and the protection of its places.

Article (41): Every individual has freedom of thought and conscience.

Article (42):

1st - The Iraqi citizen has freedom of movement and travel and residence within Iraq and outside it.

2nd - No Iraqi can be exiled or forced out or forbidden to return to his nation.

Article (43):

1st - The state is keen to strengthen the role of civil society groups and to support, develop them and preserve their independence in accordance with peaceful means to realize legitimate goals. This shall be regulated by law.

2nd - The state is keen to advance Iraqi tribes and clans and it cares about their affairs in accordance with religion, law and honorable human values and in a way that contributes to developing society and it forbids tribal customs that run contrary to human rights.

Article (44): All individuals have the right to enjoy the rights stated in international human rights agreements and treaties endorsed by Iraq that don't run contrary to the principles and rules of this constitution.

Article (45): Restricting or limiting any of the freedoms and liberties stated in this constitution may only happen by, or according to, law and as long as this restriction or limitation does not undermine the essence of the right or freedom.



Article (47): The federal legislative authority is made up of the Council of Representatives and the Council of Union.

FIRST: The Council of Representatives (Parliament).

Article (48):

1st -- The Council of Representatives is made up of a number of members at a proportion of one seat for every 100,000 people from the population of Iraq. They represent the entire Iraqi people and are elected by general, direct, secret ballot, and they take care to represent all groups of people.

2nd -- A candidate for membership in the Council of Representatives must be a fully qualified Iraqi.

3rd -- Conditions for candidates and voters and everything connected to elections will be regulated by law.

4th -- The Council of Representatives will promulgate a law dealing with replacing of its members when they resign or are removed or die.

5th -- It is not permitted to hold membership in the Council of Representatives and another official position.

Article (49): Members of the Council of Representatives shall take the constitutional oath in front of the council before starting their work, as follows:

"I swear by God almighty to carry out my legal duties and responsibilities with dedication and devotion and to preserve the independence and sovereignty of Iraq and to look after the interests of its people and to see to the safety of its land, sky, water, wealth and democratic, federal system and to work to preserve the public and private freedoms and the independence of the judiciary and to abide by honestly and impartially implementing the legislation. God is the witness of what I say."

Article (50): The Council of Representatives shall establish an internal system to regulate its work.

Article (51):

1st -- The Council of Representatives should determine the correctness of the membership of a member by a two-third majority within 30 days of the registering of an objection.

2nd -- The council's decision may be challenged before the Supreme Federal Court within 30 days of the day it was issued.

Article (52):

1st -- Sessions of the Council of Representatives shall be public unless it is necessary to do otherwise.

2nd -- Sessions reports shall be published in the way the council sees fit.

Article (53): The president of the republic calls on the council to convene by a presidential decree within 13 days of the date that the results of the general elections have been certified. The session shall be held under the chairmanship of the oldest member, to elect the president of the council and his deputies. Extensions for more than the previously mentioned period are not allowed.

Article (54): In its first session, the council shall elect by absolute majority its president, then a first deputy and a second deputy by direct, secret balloting.

Article (55):

1st -- The duration of the council's cycle is four calendar years, starting with the first session and ending by the end of the fourth year.

2nd -- The election of a new Council of Representatives takes place 45 days before the cycle ends.

Article (56): The Council of Representatives has two legislative seasons a year, running for eight months. Internal rules will determine how they shall be held. The season in which the general budget is submitted to the council shall not end before it is approved.

Article (57):

1st -- The president of the republic, the prime minister, the president of the Council of Representatives or 50 members of the council may call for an extraordinary session, and the meeting shall be confined to the issues that have made it necessary to call for the session.

2nd -- The legislative season for the Council of Representatives may be extended for no longer than 30 days to accomplish the tasks that require this, based on a request from the president of the republic, the prime minister, the president of the Council of Representatives or 50 members.

Article (58):

1st -- Quorum for sessions of the Council of Representatives shall be reached by the attendance of the absolute majority of its members.

2nd -- Decisions shall be made in the Council of Representatives by simple majority, as long as it has not been stated otherwise.

Article (59):

The Council of Representatives is given the following duties:

1st -- Legislating federal laws.

2nd _

(a) Examining draft laws submitted by 10 of the council's members or by one of its specialized committees.

(b) Examining draft laws suggested by the president of the republic and the prime minister.

3rd -- Overseeing the performance of the executive authority.

4th -- Certifying treaties or international agreements by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council of Representatives, as will be regulated by law.

5th_ Approving the appointments of:

(a) the head and members of the Federal Cassation Court, the head of the General Prosecutors Office and the head of the Judiciary Inspection Department by absolute majority, based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council.

(b) ambassadors and those with special ranks, based on the recommendation of the Cabinet.

(c) the army chief of staff, his deputies and those who hold the title of division leader and up, the head of the intelligence service, based on the recommendation of the Cabinet.

6th _

(a) Questioning the president of the republic based on a request that mentions the reason for questioning, passed by an absolute majority of the Council of Representatives.

(b) Relieving the president of the republic of his duties by absolute majority of the members of the Council of Representatives after he has been convicted from the Supreme Federal Court in one of the following cases:

1 -- Violating the constitutional oath.

2 -- Violating the constitution.

3 -- Grand treason.


(a) A member of the Council of Representatives has the right to ask the prime minister and the ministers questions about any subject that falls under any their specialties, and each has the right to answer the members. He/she who asks the question is the only one who has the right to comment on the answer.

(b) At least 25 members of the Council of Representatives may propose a general topic for discussion to clarify the policy or performance of the Cabinet or one of the ministries, and it is then presented to the president of the Council of Representatives, and the prime minister or the ministers set a date to come before the Council of Representatives to discuss it.

(c) A member of the Council of Representatives, with the approval of 25 members, may direct an interpellation to the prime minister or the ministers to hold them accountable for the affairs under their specialty. Discussing the interpellation may not take place before seven days from the date it was submitted.

8th _

(a) The Council of Representatives may withdraw confidence from a minister by absolute majority, and he/she is considered removed from the date of the withdrawal of confidence. The issue of confidence in a minister can only be put forth at his request or because of a request signed by 50 members as a result of discussing an interpellation directed to him. The council may not decide on the request except after at least seven days from the day it has been submitted.


1 -- The president of the republic may submit a request to the Council of Representatives to withdraw confidence from the prime minister.

2 -- The Council of Representatives, based on a request from one-fifth of its members, may vote to withdraw confidence from the prime minister. This request may not be submitted except after an interpellation directed to the prime minister and after at least seven days from the submission of the request.

3 -- The Council of Representatives decides the withdrawal of confidence from the prime minister by absolute majority of its members.

(c) The Cabinet shall be dissolved in the case that confidence is withdrawn from the prime minister.

(d) In the case of a vote withdrawing confidence from the whole Cabinet, the prime minister and ministers remain in their positions to run the daily affairs for a period no longer than 30 days until a new Cabinet is formed.

(e) The Council of Representatives has the right to question and relieve the officials of independent associations from their duties according to the procedures relating to the ministers and by absolute majority.

9th _

(a) Approving the declaration of war and a state of emergency by a two-thirds majority, based on a joint request by the president of the republic and the prime minister.

(b) The state of emergency may be declared for 30 days, which may be extended by approving it each time.

(c) The prime minister shall be given the necessary powers to enable him to run the country's affairs during the period of a declaration of war or a state of emergency. These powers shall be regulated by law in a way that does not run contrary to the constitution.

(d) The prime minister presents to the Council of Representatives the measures adopted and the results during the period of a declaration of war or a state of emergency within 15 days from the time they have ended.

Article (60):

1st -- The Cabinet presents the general budget bill and the final accounting statement to the Council of Representatives for approval.

2nd -- The Council of Representatives has the right to rearrange between the parts of the general budget, reduce its total amount of money and it may, when necessary, propose to the Cabinet to increase general costs.

Article (61):

1st -- The rights and privileges given to the president of the Council of Representatives and his deputies and the members of the council shall be fixed by law.


a) A member of the Council of Representatives enjoys impunity that covers the opinions he expresses during the time of convening (the council); he shall not be sued before courts for this.

b) A member may not be arrested during the duration of the council's cycle unless he is accused of a felony and by the approval of the absolute majority of the members that he be stripped of his immunity or if he was arrested red-handed.

Article (62):

1st -- The Council of Representatives shall be dissolved by the absolute majority of its members, based on a request from third of its members or a request from the prime minister and with the approval of the president of the republic. The council may not be dissolved while interpellating the prime minister.

2nd -- The president of the republic calls for a general election in the country no later than 60 days after the council of representatives has been dissolved. In that case, the Cabinet is considered dissolved and it continues to run the daily affairs.

SECOND: The Council of Union.

Article (63):

1st -- A legislative council called the "Council of Union" will be established and will include representatives of regions and provinces to examine bills related to regions and provinces.

2nd -- The makeup of the council, the conditions for membership and all things related to it will be organized by law.


Article (64): The federal executive authority consists of the president of the republic and the Cabinet. It carries out its authorities based on the constitution and the law.

FIRST, The President.

Article (65): The president of the republic is the president of the country and the symbol of the nation's unity and represents the sovereignty of the country and oversees the guarantees of adherence to the constitution, the preservation of Iraq's independence and unity and the security of its territory, in accordance to the law.

Article (66): The candidate for the president's post must:

1st - be Iraqi by birth from Iraqi parents.

2nd - be legally competent and have reached the age of 40.

3rd - have a good reputation and political experience and be known for his integrity, rectitude, justice and devotion to the homeland.

4th - not have been convicted of a crime that violates honor.

Article (67): The rules of nomination for the president's post shall be regulated by law.

Article (68):

1st - The Council of Representatives selects from among the candidates a president of the republic by a two-thirds majority.

2nd - If no single candidate gets the required majority, the two candidates with the highest votes will compete and whoever wins a majority of votes in the second round is declared president of the republic.

Article (69): The president of the republic is sworn in in front of the Council of Representatives, using the wording mentioned in article 49 in the constitution.

Article (70):

1st - The term of president of the republic is limited to 4 years.

2nd - The Council of Representatives elects a new president for the republic, three months before the end of the former president's term.

Article (71): The president of the republic enjoys the following powers:

(a) issuing special amnesty, upon a recommendation from the prime minister, to pardon those convicted in international crimes, terrorism, financial or administrative corruption or crimes against personal rights.

(b) endorsing treaties and international agreements following approval by the Council of Representatives.

(c) endorsing and issuing laws enacted by the Council of Representatives. They are considered validated 15 days after the date they were sent to him.

(d) calling for the elected Council of Representatives to convene within a period not exceeding 15 days from the date that election results are ratified, and in other cases stated in the constitution.

(e) awarding medals and badges upon recommendation of the prime minister and in accordance with the law.

(f) receiving ambassadors.

(g) issuing republican protocols.

(h) endorsing execution verdicts issued by the proper courts

(i) taking leadership of the armed forces for ceremonial and commemoration purposes.

(j) practicing any other presidential powers mentioned in the constitution.

Article (72): The law determines the salary and allowances for the president of the republic.

Article (73):

1st - The president of the republic can present a written resignation to the prime minister, and it is considered valid after seven days of the date it is lodged to the Council of Representatives.

2nd - A "deputy" of the president of the republic replaces the president during his absence.

3rd - The deputy of the president of the republic replaces the president of the republic when the post is empty for any reason, and the Council of Representatives has to elect a new president within a period not exceeding 30 days from the date the post is vacant

4th - In the case when the post of the president of the republic is vacant, the president of the Council of Representatives replaces the president if there is no deputy for him, and a new president should be elected in a period not exceeding 30 days from the time the position is vacant, according to the laws of the constitution.

SECOND, The Cabinet.

Article (74):

1st - The president assigns the candidate of the parliamentary majority to form a Cabinet during the first 15 days from the date of the first session of the Council of Representatives.

2nd- The prime minister is assigned to name members of his Cabinet within a period of 30 days, at the longest, from the date of the assignment.

3rd - The president assigns a new candidate to be the prime minister within 15 days if the prime minister assigned form the cabinet during the period mentioned in the 2nd Clause fails.

4th - The assigned prime minister presents the names of the members of his cabinet and its ministerial platform to the Council of Representatives. He is considered to have won confidence when his ministers are approved individually and his ministerial platform is approved by an absolute majority.

5th - The president will take up the assigning of another candidate to form a cabinet within 15 days if the Cabinet does not win confidence.

Article (75):

1st - The prime minister must meet the conditions set for the president of the republic. He must have a university degree or an equivalent and must be no younger than 35.

2nd - Ministers must meet the same conditions set for candidates to the Council of Representatives. A minister must have a university degree or an equivalent.

Article (76): The prime minister is the direct executive responsible for the general policy of the nation, the general commander of the armed forces and carries out the administration of the Cabinet and presides over its sessions. The prime minister has the right to remove ministers, with the consent of the Council of Representatives.

Article (77): The prime minister and the ministers carry out the constitutional oath of office before the Council of Representatives in the manner laid out in Article (49) of the constitution.

Article (78): The Cabinet carries out the following duties:

1st - planning and implementing the general policy of the state; general plans; supervising the work of the ministers and offices not subordinate to a ministry.

2nd - proposing draft laws.

3rd - issuing regulations, instructions and decisions to implement the laws.

4th - preparing the draft of the general budget and the final accounting statement and development plans.

5th - recommending to the Council of Representatives for approval the appointments of undersecretaries of ministers, ambassadors, those who have special ranks; the army chief of staff, his deputies and those who are division leaders or higher; the head of the national intelligence service and the heads of the security apparatuses.

6th - negotiating treaties and international agreements and signing them or designating someone to sign.

Article (79):

1st - The president of the republic becomes the acting prime minister when the position is empty for any reason.

2nd - The president of the republic must name another prime minister within no more than 15 days and in accordance with the provisions of Article 74 in this constitution.

Article (80): The salaries and allowances of the prime minister and the ministers and those at their rank shall be fixed by law.

Article (81): The responsibility of the prime minister and the ministers before the Council of Representatives shall be collective and personal.

Article (82):

1st - The work of the security apparatuses and the intelligence service shall be fixed by law; their duties and powers shall be specified and they shall work according to the principles of human rights and shall be subjected to the supervision of the Council of Representatives.

2nd - The national intelligence service is tied to the Cabinet.

Article (83): The Cabinet shall lay down a system of internal rules to regulate its work.

Article (84): The forming of ministries and their functions and responsibilities and the powers of the minister shall be regulated by law.


Article (85): The judiciary is independent and will be represented by courts of different kinds and levels, and they will issue their rulings according to law.

Article (86): Judges are independent, with no authority over them in their rulings except the law. No authority can interfere in the judiciary or in the affairs of justice.

Article (87): The federal judiciary will include the Supreme Judiciary Council, the Supreme Federal Court, the Federal Cassation Court, the Prosecutor's Office, the Judiciary Inspection Department and other federal courts that are organized by law.

FIRST: The Supreme Judiciary Council

Article (88): The Supreme Judiciary Council will administer judicial affairs in accordance with the law.

Article (89): The Supreme Judiciary Council will exercise the following powers:

1st -- administering and supervising the federal judiciary system.

2nd -- nominating the head and members of the Supreme Federal Court and presenting their names to parliament for endorsement.

3rd -- nominating the head of the Federal Cassation Court, the chief prosecutor and the head of the Judiciary Inspection Department, and presenting them to parliament for approval.

4th -- proposing the annual budget for the federal judiciary system and presenting it to parliament for approval.

SECOND: The Supreme Federal Court

Article (90):

1st -- The Supreme Federal Court is an independent judicial body, financially and administratively, its work and its duties will be defined by law.

2nd -- The Supreme Federal Court will be made up of a number of judges and experts in Sharia (Islamic Law) and law, whose number and manner of selection will be defined by a law that should be passed by two-thirds of the parliament members.

Article (91): The Supreme Federal Court will have the following duties:

1st -- overseeing the constitutionality of federal laws before they are issued.

2nd -- overseeing the constitutionality of the laws and standing regulations.

3rd -- interpreting the text of the constitution.

4th -- ruling in cases that emerge from the implementation of federal laws.

5th -- ruling in disputes between the federal government and the governments of the regions and the provinces and local administrations.

6th -- ruling in disputes between the governments of the regions or provinces.

7th -- ruling in accusations against the president of the republic, the prime minister and the ministers.

8th -- endorsing the final results of parliamentary general elections.

Article (92):

Resolutions of the Supreme Federal Court are binding for all authorities.

THIRD: General Provisions:

Article (93): Establishing private or exceptional courts is forbidden.

Article (94): The law shall regulate the establishment of courts, their kinds, degrees, duties and the means of appointing judges, members of the General Prosecutors Office, the provisions for disciplining them and moving them into retirement.

Article (95): Judges shall not be impeached except in the cases determined by law; the law will also specify the rules pertaining to them and regulate disciplinary actions against them.

Article (96): It is forbidden for a judge or a member of the prosecution to:

1st _simultaneously hold a judicial position and a legislative or executive position or any other job.

2nd -- belong to any party or political organization or engage in any political activity.

Article (97): The military judiciary shall be fixed by law and the responsibilities of the military courts, which are limited to crimes with a military nature committed by members of the armed forces and security forces, shall be specified within the limits of the law.

Article (98): It is forbidden to legislate into a law provisions protecting any administrative action or decision from being challenged in court.

Article (99): It is permissible by law to establish a state council to handle the tasks of the administrative judiciary, advising, phrasing, representing the state and all other public associations in front of the judiciary, except what the law exempts.

The complete text of the draft Iraqi Constitution, as translated from the Arabic by The Associated Press, part 8 of 12:


Article (100): The Supreme Commission for Human Rights and the Supreme Independent Commission for Elections and the Integrity Agency are considered independent associations subject to the supervision of the Council of Representatives. Their work is regulated by law.

Article (101):

1st -- The Iraqi Central Bank, the Financial Inspection Office, the media and communications agency, and the offices of (religious) endowments are considered financially and administratively independent associations. Each of their activities is regulated by law.

2nd -- The Iraqi central bank is responsible before the Council of Representatives, and the Financial Inspection Office and the media and communications agency are tied to the Council of Representatives.

3rd -- Offices of endowments are affiliated to the Cabinet

Article (102): An agency shall be established called the Institution of the Martyrs, affiliated to the Cabinet, and its operations and powers will be regulated by law.

Article (103): A public agency will be founded to guarantee the right of the regions and of provinces that do not belong to a region to fair participation in the administration of the various federal state institutions, missions, fellowships, delegations and regional and international conferences. It shall be made up of representatives of the federal government, regions and provinces that do not belong to a region, and it shall be regulated by law.

Article (104): A general body shall be established by law to monitor and allocate federal incomes; the body shall consist of experts from the federal government, the regions and the provinces and representatives from them. It should shoulder the following responsibilities:

1st -- verifying fairness in distribution of international grants, aid and loans based on what the regions and the provinces that do not belong to a region deserve.

2nd _ensuring that federal financial resources are being used and distributed in the best way.

3rd -- ensuring transparency and justice when allocating money to the regional governments and provinces according to the decided ratios.

Article (105): A council, to be called the federal public service council, shall be established and it shall be responsible for regulating the affairs of the federal public office, including appointments and promotions. Its formation and responsibilities shall be regulated by a law.

Article (106): It is allowed to establish other independent associations according to need and necessity and by law.


Article (107): The federal authority will maintain the unity of Iraq, its integrity, independence, sovereignty and its democratic federal system.

Article (108): The federal authorities will have the following exclusive powers:

1st -- drawing up foreign policy, diplomatic representation, negotiating international accords and agreements, negotiating and signing debt agreements, drawing up foreign sovereign economic and trade policies.

2nd -- drawing up and executing national defense policy including setting up and operating the armed forces to ensure the protection and security of Iraq's borders and its defense.

3rd -- drawing up financial and customs policy, issuing currency, organizing trade policy among regions and provinces in Iraq, setting the general budget for the nation, drawing up currency policies and establishing and administering a central bank.

4th -- organizing issues of weights and measures.

5th -- organizing issues of nationality and naturalization, residence and asylum rights.

6th -- organizing a policy of broadcast wavelengths and the mail.

7th -- setting the general and investment budgets.

8th -- planning policies connected to water resources from outside Iraq and guaranteeing levels of water flow into Iraq, according to international law and custom.

9th -- conducting the general census of the population.

Article (109): Oil and gas is the property of all the Iraqi people in all the regions and provinces.

Article (110):

1st -- The federal government will administer oil and gas extracted from current fields in cooperation with the governments of the producing regions and provinces on condition that the revenues will be distributed fairly in a manner compatible with the demographical distribution all over the country. A quota should be defined for a specified time for affected regions that were deprived in an unfair way by the former regime or later on, in a way to ensure balanced development in different parts of the country. This should be regulated by law.

2nd -- The federal government and the governments of the producing regions and provinces together will draw up the necessary strategic policies to develop oil and gas wealth to bring the greatest benefit for the Iraqi people, relying on the most modern techniques of market principles and encouraging investment.

Article (111): All that is not written in the exclusive powers of the federal authorities is in the authority of the regions. In other powers shared between the federal government and the regions, the priority will be given to the region's law in case of dispute.

Article (112): The following duties will be shared by the federal and regional authorities:

1st -- administering and organizing customs, in coordination with the regional government, and this will be regulated by law.

2nd -- organizing and distributing the main electrical power resources.

3rd -- drawing up environmental policy to guarantee the protection of the environment from pollution and the preservation of its cleanliness, in cooperation with the regions.

4th -- drawing up general planning and development policies.

5th -- drawing up general health policy, in cooperation with the regions.

6th -- drawing up general education and childrearing policy, in consultation with the regions.


Article (113): The federal system in the republic of Iraq is made up of the capital, regions, decentralized provinces, and local administrations.

Article (114):

1st -- The regions comprise one province or more, and two regions or more have the right to join into one region.

2nd -- One province or more have the right to form a region, based on a request for a referendum, which can be presented in one of two ways:

a) a request by a third of the members of each of the provincial councils in the provinces that desire to form a region.

b) a request by 1/10 (one-tenth) of the voters in each of the provinces that desire to form a region.

3rd _

a) The general referendum is held among the residents of the particular provinces concerned with what is referred to in "1st" of this article. The referendum takes place when the provincial councils are in session, and the referendum is considered a success with the agreement of the majority of voters.

b) the referendum is not repeated, unless 2/3 (two-thirds) of the members in each of the provincial councils, or 1/4 (one-quarter) of the concerned provinces' residents, put forward a request for a new referendum.

Article (115): The authorities of each region include legislative, executive and judicial authorities.

Article (116):

1st -- The governments of regions have the right to practice legislative, executive and judicial powers according to this constitution, except in what is listed as exclusive powers of the federal authorities.

2nd -- The regional authority has the right to amend the implementation of the federal law in the region in the case of a contradiction between the federal and regional laws in matters that do not pertain to the exclusive powers of the federal authorities.

3rd -- It is permissible to delegate the authorities practiced by the federal government to the regional governments and vice versa, with the approval of both.

4th -- A fair share of the revenues collected federally is designated to regions, in a way that suffices their duties and obligations, taking into consideration the (region's) resources and needs.

5th -- Offices for regions and provinces are to be established in embassies and diplomatic missions to follow up on cultural, social and local development affairs.


Article (117): The legislative authority of a region consists of one council called the National Council for the Region.

Article (118):

Members of the National Council for the Region are elected by residents of the region through universal direct secret ballot.

Article (119):

1st -- The National Council for the Region devises the regional constitution, stipulates laws, in a way that does not contradict with this constitution and the federal laws.

2nd -- The regional constitution is put up for a referendum to the residents of the region and becomes effective after approval by a majority and its publication in the official newspaper.


Article (120): The executive authority is made up of the president of the region and the regional cabinet.

Article (121): The executive authority carries out its responsibilities as designated in the regional constitution, in a way that does not contradict this constitution.

FIRST: The president of the region

Article (122): The president of the region is the highest executive president in the region.

Article (123): The president of the region is elected according to the constitution of the region.

Article (124): The constitution of the region determines the responsibilities of the president and the authorities designated to the regional constitutional agencies in a way that does not contradict this constitution.

SECOND: The Cabinet of the region

Article (125): The Cabinet is the highest executive authority in the region and practices its authorities under the supervision and guidance of the president of the region.

Article (126): The Cabinet consists of the prime minister and a number of ministers set according to the constitution of the region.

Article (127): The Cabinet practices the authorities accorded to it following the constitution of the region.

Article (128):

1st -- The revenues of the region are made up of its designated share from the state budget and from the region's local resources.

2nd -- The Cabinet of the region prepares the annual budget for the region and the final expense account, and a law is issued for them by the National Council for the Region. The Cabinet presents a copy of the region's general budget and the final expense account to the federal finance ministry, after they are approved by the National Council for the region.

Article (129): The region's government is responsible for all that is required to manage the region, in particular establishing and organizing internal security forces for the region such as police, security and regional guards.


Article (130): The judicial authority of the region consists of the judicial council of the region, the courts, the prosecutors offices, and the regional court of cassation is considered the highest judicial authority in the region.

Article (131): The types of courts, their levels and specializations are organized according to the judicial authority law of the region, provided it does not contradict this constitution.


Article (132):

1st -- Provinces consist of districts, counties and villages.

2nd -- Provinces that were not included into a region are given extensive administrative and financial authorities to enable them to self-manage according to the principal of administrative decentralization, and this is regulated by law.

3rd -- The provincial governor, who is elected by the provincial council, is considered the highest executive president of the province to carry out the responsibilities designated to him by the council.

4th -- The election of the provincial council, the governor and their authorities will be regulated by law.

5th -- The provincial council is not subject to the domination or the supervision of any ministry or any party unrelated to a ministry, and it has its independent finances.

Article (133): It is permissible to delegate the federal government's authorities to the provinces or vice versa, with the two parties' approval, and this is regulated by law.


Article (134): Baghdad with its administrative boundaries is the capital of the republic of Iraq, and it consists of the province of Baghdad with its administrative boundaries, and its status is regulated through a law.


Article (135): This constitution guarantees the administrative, political, cultural, educational rights for the various ethnicities such as Turkomen, Chaldeans, Assyrians, and the other components, and this is regulated through a law.



Article (136):

1st -- The president of the republic and the Cabinet together, or one- fifth of the members of the Council of Representatives, can suggest amending the constitution.

2nd -- The basic principles of the constitution mentioned in Chapter One of this constitution cannot be amended, except after two consecutive parliament cycles and based on the consent of two-thirds of the members of the Council of Representatives, a public referendum and the endorsement of the president of the republic within seven days.

3rd -- Other items not covered by the 2nd clause of this article can only amended by two-thirds of the members of the Council of Representatives, the consent of the people in a general referendum and the endorsement of the president within seven days.

4th -- No amendment is allowed that lessens the powers of the regions that are not among the exclusive powers of the federal authority, except with the agreement of the legislative council of the concerned region and the consent of a majority of its population in a general referendum.

5th -- An amendment is considered in effect upon the date of its publication in the official gazette.

Article (137): It is not permitted for the president of the republic, the prime minister and Cabinet, the president of the Council of Representatives and its members and delegates, members of the judicial authority and holders of special positions to use their influence to buy or rent anything from the finances of the state or to sell or rent to the state anything from their own finances or to bring suit against the state over these things or to strike contracts with the state in their capacity as concessionairies, importers or contractors.

Article (138) : Laws and judicial rulings are issued in the name of the people.

Article (139): Laws are published in the official gazette, and are in effect from the publishing date as long as it is not legislated otherwise.

Article (140): Legislation remains in effect as long as it is not nullified or amended in accordance to the rules of this constitution.

Article (141): Every referendum mentioned in this constitution is passed by a simple majority unless mentioned otherwise.


Article (142):

1st - The state guarantees the welfare of political prisoners and those who were harmed by the practices of the former dictatorial regime.

2nd - The state guarantees compensation to the families of martyrs and those who were wounded by terrorist acts.

3rd - What is provided for in these first and second clauses will be regulated by law.

Article (143): The Council of Representatives shall rely in its first session on the internal organization of the Transitional National Assembly until its own internal organization is decided.

Article (144): The Supreme Iraqi Criminal Court will continue its activities as an independent judicial agency, looking into the crimes of the dictatorial regime and its leading figures. The Council of Representatives can dissolve it by law once its work is finished.

Article (145):

1st - The National De-Baathification Committee will continue its work as an independent body in coordination with the judiciary and the executive authorities in the framework of law regulating its work. The committee is linked to the Parliament.

2nd - The Council of Representatives can dissolve the committee after it finishes its work.

3rd - It is a condition upon candidates for the positions of president of the republic, prime minister, ministers, parliament speaker and parliament members, head of the Federal Council and its members and all similar posts in the regions, and members of the judiciary and other posts included under de-Baathification, that they not be included under the provisions of de-Baathification.

4th - The condition mentioned in the 3rd clause of this article will remain in effect until it is abolished by law.

Article (146):

1st - The Property Claims Agency will continue its operations as an independent body in coordination with judicial authorities and executive bodies in accordance with the law, and it is linked to the Council of Representatives.

2nd - The Council of Representatives can dissolve the agency by a two-thirds majority.